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JEL Classification Codes



General economics and teaching JEL: A Subcategories

Category:General economics

JEL: A1 – General Economics

JEL: A10 – General

JEL: A11 – Role of Economics; Role of Economists; Market for Economists

JEL: A12 – Relation of Economics to Other Disciplines

JEL: A13 – Relation of Economics to Social Values

JEL: A14 – Sociology of Economics

JEL: A19 – Other

JEL: A2 – Economic Education and Teaching of Economics

JEL: A20 – General

JEL: A21 – Pre-college

JEL: A22 – Undergraduate

JEL: A23 – Graduate

JEL: A29 – Other

JEL: A3 – Collective Works

JEL: A30 – General

JEL: A31 – Collected Writings of Individuals

JEL: A32 – Volumes

JEL: A33 – Handbooks

JEL: A39 – Other


History of economic thought, methodology, and heterodox approaches JEL: B Subcategories

Category:History of economic thought, methodology, and heterodox approaches

JEL: B0 – General

JEL: B00 – General

JEL: B1 – History of Economic Thought through 1925

JEL: B10 – General

JEL: B11 – Preclassical

JEL: B12 – Classical

JEL: B13 – Neoclassical through 1925

JEL: B14 – Socialist; Marxist

JEL: B15 – Historical; Institutional

JEL: B16 – History of Economic Thought: Quantitative and Mathematical

JEL: B19 – Other

JEL: B2 – History of Economic Thought since 1925

JEL: B20 – General

JEL: B21 – Microeconomics

JEL: B22 – Macroeconomics

JEL: B23 – History of Economic Thought: Econometrics; Quantitative & Mathematical Studies

JEL: B24 – Socialist; Marxist; Sraffian

JEL: B25 – Historical; Institutional; Evolutionary; Austrian

JEL: B29 – Other

JEL: B3 – History of Thought: Individuals

JEL: B30 – General

JEL: B31 – Individuals

JEL: B32 – Obituaries

JEL: B4 – Economic methodology

JEL: B40 – General

JEL: B41 – Economic methodology

JEL: B49 – Other

JEL: B5 – Current Heterodox Approaches

JEL: B50 – General

JEL: B51 – Socialist; Marxian; Sraffian

JEL: B52 – Institutional; Evolutionary

JEL: B53 – Austrian

JEL: B54 – Feminist Economics

JEL: B59 – Other


Mathematical and quantitative methods JEL: C Subcategories

Category:Mathematical and quantitative methods (economics)

JEL: C0 – General

JEL: C00 – General

JEL: C01 – Econometrics

JEL: C02 – Mathematical Methods

JEL: C1 – Econometric and Statistical Methods: General

JEL: C10 – General

JEL: C11 – Bayesian analysis

JEL: C12 – Hypothesis testing

JEL: C13 – Estimation

JEL: C14 – Semiparametric and nonparametric methods

JEL: C15 – Statistical Simulation methods

JEL: C16 – Statistical distributions

JEL: C16 – Specific Distributions

JEL: C19 – Other

JEL: C2 – Econometric methods: Single equation models;Single variables

JEL: C20 – General

JEL: C21 – Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial models; Treatment effect models

JEL: C22 – Time-Series Models

JEL: C23 – Panel data

JEL: C34 – Truncated and censored models

JEL: C25 – Discrete regression; Qualitative choice models

JEL: C29 – Other

JEL: C3 – Econometric Methods: Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models

JEL: C30 – General

JEL: C31 – Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment effect models

JEL: C32 – Time-Series Models

JEL: C33 – Models with Panel data

JEL: C34 – Truncated and censored models

JEL: C35 – Discrete regression and Qualitative choice models

JEL: C39 – Other

JEL: C4 – Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics

JEL: C40 – General

JEL: C41 – Duration analysis

JEL: C42 – Survey methods

JEL: C43 – Index numbers and Aggregation

JEL: C44 – Operations research; Statistical decision theory

JEL: C45 – Neural Networks and Related Topics

JEL: C46 – Specific Distributions

JEL: C49 – Other

JEL: C5 – Econometric Modeling

JEL: C50 – General

JEL: C51 – Model construction and estimation

JEL: C52 – Model evaluation and testing

JEL: C53 – Forecasting and Prediction Methods; Simulation

[JEL: C53 –

JEL: C59 – Other

JEL: C6 – Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling

JEL: C60 – General

JEL: C61 – Optimization techniques; Programming models; Dynamic analysis

JEL: C62 – Existence and stability conditions of equilibrium

JEL: C63 – Computational techniques; Simulation modeling

JEL: C65 – Miscellaneous Mathematical Tools

JEL: C67 – Input–output models

JEL: C68 – Computable General Equilibrium models

JEL: C69 – Other

JEL: C7 – Game theory and Bargaining theory

JEL: C70 – General

JEL: C71 – Cooperative games

JEL: C72 – Noncooperative games

JEL: C73 – Stochastic and Dynamic games; Evolutionary games; Repeated Games

JEL: C78 – Bargaining theory; Matching theory[disambiguation needed]

JEL: C79 – Other

JEL: C8 – Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology; Computer Programs

JEL: C80 – General

JEL: C81 – Methodology for collecting, estimating, and organizing microeconomic data

JEL: C82 – Methodology for collecting, estimating, and organizing macroeconomic data

JEL: C87 – Econometric software

JEL: C88 – Other Computer Software

JEL: C89 – Other

JEL: C9 – Design of experiments

JEL: C90 – General

JEL: C91 – Laboratory, Individual Behavior

JEL: C92 – Laboratory, Group Behavior

JEL: C93 – Field experiments

JEL: C99 – Other


Microeconomics JEL: D Subcategories


JEL: D0 – General

JEL: D00 – General

JEL: D01 – Microeconomic Behavior: Underlying Principles

JEL: D02 – Institutions: Design, Formation, and Operations

JEL: D03 – Behavioral Economics; Underlying Principles

JEL: D1 – Household Behavior and Family Economics

JEL: D10 – General

JEL: D11 – Consumer Economics: Theory

JEL: D12 – Consumer economics: empirical analysis

JEL: D13 – Household production and Intrahousehold allocation

JEL: D14 – Personal finance

JEL: D18 – Consumer protection

JEL: D19 – Other

JEL: D2 – Production and Organizations

JEL: D20 – General

JEL: D21 – Firm behavior

JEL: D23 – Organizational behavior; Transaction Costs; Property rights

JEL: D24 – Production; Cost; Capital, Multifactor and Total Factor Productivity; Capacity

JEL: D29 – Other

JEL: D3 – Distribution

JEL: D30 – General

JEL: D31 – Personal Income, Wealth, and Their Distributions

JEL: D33 – Factor Income Distribution

JEL: D39 – Other

JEL: D4 – Market structure and pricing

JEL: D40 – General

JEL: D41 – Perfect competition

JEL: D42 – Monopoly

JEL: D43 – Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection

JEL: D44 – Auctions

JEL: D45 – Rationing; Licensing

JEL: D46 – Value Theory

JEL: D47 – Market Design

JEL: D49 – Other

JEL: D5 – General equilibrium and Disequilibrium

JEL: D50 – General

JEL: D51 – Exchange and Production Economies

JEL: D52 – Incomplete Markets

JEL: D57 – Input–Output Tables and Analysis

JEL: D58 – Computable and Other Applied General Equilibrium Models

JEL: D59 – Other

JEL: D6 – Welfare economics

JEL: D60 – General

JEL: D61 – Allocative efficiency; Cost-benefit analysis

JEL: D62 – Externalities

JEL: D63 – Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement

JEL: D64 – Altruism; Philanthropy

JEL: D69 – Other

JEL: D7 – Analysis of Collective Decision-Making

JEL: D70 – General

JEL: D71 – Social choice; Clubs; Committees; Associations

JEL: D72 – Economic Models of Political Processes: Rent-Seeking, Elections, Legislatures, and Voting Behavior

JEL: D73 – Bureaucracy; Administrative Processes in Public Organizations; Corruption

JEL: D74 – Conflict; Conflict Resolution; Alliances

JEL: D78 – Positive Analysis of Policy-Making and Implementation

JEL: D79 – Other

JEL: D8 – Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty

JEL: D80 – General

JEL: D81 – Criteria for Decision-Making under Risk and Uncertainty

JEL: D82 – Asymmetric and Private information; Market Design

JEL: D83 – Search; Learning; Information and Knowledge

JEL: D84 – Expectations; Speculation

JEL: D85 – Network Formation and Analysis: Theory

JEL: D86 – Economics of Contract: Theory

JEL: D87 – Neuroeconomics

JEL: D89 – Other

JEL: D9 – Intertemporal choice and Growth

JEL: D90 – General

JEL: D91 – Intertemporal Consumer Choice; Life cycle models and Saving

JEL: D92 – Intertemporal Firm Choice and Growth, Investment, or Financing

JEL: D99 – Other


Macroeconomics and monetary economics JEL: E Subcategories

Category:Macroeconomics and monetary economics

JEL: E – Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics

JEL: E0 – General

JEL: E00 – General

JEL: E01 – Measurement and Data on National Income and Product Accounts and Wealth

JEL: E02 – Institutions and the Macroeconomy

JEL: E1 – General Aggregative Models

JEL: E10 – General

JEL: E11 – Marxian; Sraffian; Institutional; Evolutionary

JEL: E12 – Keynes; Keynesian; Post-Keynesian

JEL: E13 – Neoclassical

JEL: E16 – Social Accounting Matrix

JEL: E17 – Forecasting and Simulation

JEL: E19 – Other

JEL: E2 – Macroeconomics: Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment

JEL: E20 – General

JEL: E21 – Consumption; Saving; Wealth

JEL: E22 – Capital; Investment (including Inventories); Capacity

JEL: E23 – Production

JEL: E24 – Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital

JEL: E25 – Aggregate Factor Income Distribution

JEL: E26 – Informal economy; Underground Economy

JEL: E27 – Forecasting and Simulation

JEL: E29 – Other

JEL: E3 – Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles

JEL: E30 – General

JEL: E31 – Price Level; Inflation; Deflation

JEL: E32 – Business Fluctuations; Cycles

JEL: E37 – Forecasting and Simulation

JEL: E39 – Other

JEL: E4 – Money and Interest Rates

JEL: E40 – General

JEL: E41 – Demand for Money

JEL: E42 – Monetary Systems; Standards; Regimes; Government and the Monetary System; Payment Systems

JEL: E43 – Determination of Interest Rates; Term Structure of Interest Rates

JEL: E44 – Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy

JEL: E47 – Forecasting and Simulation

JEL: E49 – Other

JEL: E5 – Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit

JEL: E50 – General

JEL: E51 – Money Supply; Credit; Money multipliers

JEL: E52 – Monetary Policy

JEL: E58 – Central Banks and Their Policies

JEL: E59 – Other

JEL: E6 – Macroeconomic Policy Formation, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, Macroeconomic Policy, and General Outlook

JEL: E60 – General

JEL: E61 – Policy Objectives; Policy Designs and Consistency; Policy Coordination

JEL: E62 – Fiscal Policy; Public Expenditures, Investment, and Finance; Taxation

JEL: E63 – Comparative or Joint Analysis of Fiscal and Monetary Policy; Stabilization

JEL: E64 – Incomes policy; Price policy

JEL: E65 – Studies of Particular Policy Episodes

JEL: E66 – General Outlook and Conditions

JEL: E69 – Other


International economics JEL: F Subcategories

Category:International economics

JEL: F – International Economics

JEL: F0 – General

JEL: F00 – General

JEL: F01 – Global Outlook

JEL: F02 – International Economic Order; Noneconomic International Organizations •Economic Integration and Globalization: General

JEL: F1 – Trade

JEL: F10 – General

JEL: F11 – Neoclassical Models of Trade

JEL: F12 – Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies

JEL: F13 – Commercial Policy; Protection; Promotion; Trade Negotiations; International Organizations

JEL: F14 – Empirical Studies of Trade

JEL: F15 – Economic Integration

JEL: F16 – Trade and Labor Market Interactions

JEL: F17 – Trade Forecasting and Simulation

JEL: F18 – Trade and Environment

JEL: F19 – Other

JEL: F2 – International Factor Movements and International Business

JEL: F20 – General

JEL: F21 – International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements

JEL: F22 – International Migration

JEL: F23 – Multinational Firms; International Business

JEL: F24 – Remittances

JEL: F29 – Other

JEL: F3 – International Finance

JEL: F30 – General

JEL: F31 – Foreign Exchange

JEL: F32 – Current Account Adjustment; Short-Term Capital Movements

JEL: F33 – International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions

JEL: F34 – International Lending and Debt Problems

JEL: F35 – Foreign aid

JEL: F36 – Financial Aspects of Economic Integration

JEL: F37 – International Finance Forecasting and Simulation

JEL: F39 – Other

JEL: F4 – Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance

JEL: F40 – General

JEL: F41 – Open economy macroeconomics

JEL: F42 – International Policy Coordination and Transmission

JEL: F43 – Economic Growth of Open Economies

JEL: F47 – Forecasting and Simulation

JEL: F49 – Other

JEL: F5 – International Relations and International Political Economy

JEL: F50 – General

JEL: F51 – International Conflicts; Negotiations; Sanctions

JEL: F52 – National Security; Economic Nationalism

JEL: F53 – International Agreements and Observance; International Organizations

JEL: F54 – Colonialism; Imperialism; Postcolonialism

JEL: F55 – International Institutional Arrangements

JEL: F59 – International Relations and International Political Economy: Other

Financial economics JEL: G Subcategories

Category:Financial economics

JEL: G – Financial Economics

JEL: G0 – General

JEL: G00 – General

JEL: G01 – Financial crisis

JEL: G02 – Behavioral Finance: Underlying Principles

JEL: G1 – General Financial Markets

JEL: G10 – General

JEL: G11 – Portfolio choice; Investment decisions

JEL: G12 – Asset pricing; Trading volume; Bond interest rates

JEL: G13 – Contingent pricing; Futures Pricing

JEL: G14 – Information and Market Efficiency; Event Studies

JEL: G15 – International financial markets

JEL: G17 – Financial Forecasting

JEL: G18 – Government Policy and Regulation

JEL: G19 – Other

JEL: G2 – Financial institutions and Services

JEL: G20 – General

JEL: G21 – Banks; Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages

JEL: G22 – Insurance; Insurance companies

JEL: G23 – Non-bank Financial Institutions; Financial Instruments; Institutional Investors

JEL: G24 – Investment banking; Venture capital; Brokerage; Ratings and Ratings Agencies

JEL: G28 – Government Policy and Regulation

JEL: G29 – Other

JEL: G3 – Corporate finance and Governance

JEL: G30 – General

JEL: G31 – Capital budgeting; Fixed Investment and Inventory Studies

JEL: G32 – Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Goodwill

JEL: 33 – Bankruptcy; Liquidation

JEL: G34 – Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate governance

JEL: G35 – Payout Policy

JEL: G38 – Government Policy and Regulation

JEL: G39 – Other


Public economics JEL: H Subcategories

Category:Public economics

JEL: H – Public Economics

JEL: H0 – General

JEL: H00 – General

JEL: H1 – Structure and Scope of Government

JEL: H10 – General

JEL: H11 – Structure, Scope, and Performance of Government

JEL: H12 – Crisis management

JEL: H19 – Other

JEL: H2 – Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue

JEL: H20 – General

JEL: H21 – Efficiency; Optimal taxation

JEL: H22 – Incidence

JEL: H23 – Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental taxes and Subsidies

JEL: H24 – Personal Income and Other Nonbusiness Taxes and Subsidies

JEL: H25 – Business Taxes and Subsidies

JEL: H26 – Tax Evasion

JEL: H27 – Other Sources of Revenue

JEL: H29 – Other

JEL: H3 – Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents

JEL: H30 – General

JEL: H31 – Household

JEL: H32 – Firm

JEL: H39 – Other

JEL: H4 – Publicly provided goods

JEL: H40 – General

JEL: H41 – Public goods

JEL: H42 – Publicly Provided Private Goods

JEL: H43 – Project evaluation; Social discount rate

JEL: H44 – Publicly Provided Goods: Mixed Markets

JEL: H49 – Other

JEL: H5 – National Government Expenditures and Related Policies

JEL: H50 – General

JEL: H51 – Government Expenditures and Health

JEL: H52 – Government Expenditures and Education

JEL: H53 – Government Expenditures and Welfare Programs

JEL: H54 – Infrastructures; Other Public Investment and Capital Stock

JEL: H55 – Social security and Public pensions

JEL: H56 – National Security and War

JEL: H57 – Government Procurement

JEL: H59 – Other

JEL: H6 – National Budget, Deficit, and Debt

JEL: H60 – General

JEL: H61 – Budget; Budget Systems

JEL: H62 – Deficit; Surplus

JEL: H63 – Debt; Debt Management

JEL: H63 – Debt; Debt Management; Sovereign debt

JEL: H68 – Forecasts of Budgets, Deficits, and Debt

JEL: H69 – Other

JEL: H7 – State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations

JEL: H70 – General

JEL: H71 – State and Local Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue

JEL: H72 – State and Local Budget and Expenditures

JEL: H73 – Interjurisdictional Differentials and Their Effects

JEL: H74 – State and Local Borrowing

JEL: H75 – State and Local Government: Health; Education; Welfare; Public pensions

JEL: H76 – State and Local Government: Other Expenditure Categories

JEL: H77 – Intergovernmental Relations; Federalism; Secession

JEL: H79 – Other

JEL: H8 – Miscellaneous Issues

JEL: H80 – General

JEL: H81 – Governmental Loans, Loan Guarantees, Credits, and Grants; Bailouts

JEL: H82 – Governmental Property

JEL: H83 – Public administration; Public Sector Accounting and Audits

JEL: H84 – Disaster Aid

JEL: H87 – International Fiscal Issues; International Public Goods

JEL: H89 – Other


Health, education, and welfare JEL: I Subcategories

Category:Health, education, and welfare economics

JEL: I – Health, Education, and Welfare

JEL: I0 – General

JEL: I00 – General

JEL: I1 – Health

JEL: I10 – General

JEL: I11 – Analysis of Health Care Markets

JEL: I12 – Health Production: Nutrition, Mortality, Morbidity, Substance abuse and Addiction, Disability, and Economic Behavior

JEL: I18 – Government Policy; Regulation; Public health

JEL: I19 – Other

JEL: I2 – Education

JEL: I20 – General

JEL: I21 – Analysis of Education

JEL: I22 – Educational finance

JEL: I23 – Higher Education Research Institutions

JEL: I28 – Government Policy

JEL: I29 – Other

JEL: I3 – Welfare and Poverty

JEL: I30 – General

JEL: I31 – General Welfare; Basic needs; Living standards; Quality of life; Happiness

JEL: I32 – Measurement and Analysis of Poverty

JEL: I38 – Government Policy; Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs

JEL: I39 – Other


Labor and demographic economics JEL: J Subcategories

Category:Labor and demographic economics

JEL: J – Labor and Demographic Economics


Category:Demographic economics

JEL: J0 – General

JEL: J00 – General

JEL: J1 – Demographic Economics

JEL: J10 – General

JEL: J11 – Demographic Trends and Forecasts

JEL: J12 – Marriage; Marital Dissolution; Family Structure

JEL: J13 – Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth

JEL: J14 – Economics of the Elderly; Economics of the Handicapped

JEL: J15 – Economics of Minorities and Races; Non-labor Discrimination

JEL: J16 – Economics of gender; Non-labor Discrimination

JEL: J17 – Value of life; Foregone Income

JEL: J18 – Public Policy

JEL: J19 – Other

JEL: J2 – Time Allocation, Work Behavior, and Employment Determination and Creation; Human capital

JEL: J20 – General

JEL: J21 – Labor force and Employment, Size, and Structure

JEL: J22 – Time allocation and Labor supply

JEL: J23 – Employment Determination; Job creation; Demand for labor; Self-employment

JEL: J24 – Human capital; Skills; Occupational choice; Labor productivity

JEL: J26 – Retirement; Retirement policies

JEL: J28 – Safety; Accidents; Industrial Health; Job Satisfaction; Related Public Policy

JEL: J29 – Other

JEL: J3 – Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs

JEL: J30 – General

JEL: J31 – Wage Level and Structure; Wage differentials by Skill, Training, Occupation, etc.

JEL: J32 – Nonwage labor costs and Benefits; Private pensions

JEL: J33 – Compensation Packages; Payment Methods

JEL: J38 – Public Policy

JEL: J39 – Other

JEL: J4 – Particular Labor Markets

JEL: J40 – General

JEL: J41 – Contracts: Specific Human Capital, Matching models, Efficiency wage Models, and Internal labor markets

JEL: J42 – Monopsony; Segmented Labor Markets

JEL: J43 – Agricultural Labor Markets

JEL: J44 – Professional Labor Markets and Occupations

JEL: J45 – Public Sector Labor Markets

JEL: J48 – Public Policy

JEL: J49 – Other

JEL: J5 – Labor–Management Relations, Trade Unions, and Collective Bargaining

JEL: J50 – General

JEL: J51 – Trade unions: Objectives, Structure, and Effects

JEL: J52 – Dispute Resolution: Strikes, Arbitration, and Mediation; Collective bargaining

JEL: J53 – Labor-management relations; Industrial Jurisprudence

JEL: J54 – Producer cooperatives; Labor managed firms

JEL: J58 – Public Policy

JEL: J59 – Other

JEL: J6 – Mobility, Unemployment, and Vacancies

JEL: J60 – General

JEL: J61 – Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers

JEL: J62 – Job, Occupational, and Intergenerational mobility

JEL: J63 – Turnover; Vacancies; Layoffs

JEL: J64 – Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence, and Job Search

JEL: J65 – Unemployment insurance; Severance pay; Plant closings

JEL: J68 – Public Policy

JEL: J69 – Other

JEL: J7 – Labor Discrimination

JEL: J70 – General

JEL: J71 – Discrimination

JEL: J78 – Public Policy

JEL: J79 – Other

JEL: J8 – Labor Standards: National and International

JEL: J80 – General

JEL: J81 – Working conditions

JEL: J82 – Labor Force Composition

JEL: J83 – Workers’ Rights

JEL: J88 – Public Policy

JEL: J89 – Other


Law and economics JEL: K Subcategories

Category:Law and economics

JEL: K – Law and Economics

JEL: K0 – General

JEL: K00 – General

JEL: K1 – Basic Areas of Law

JEL: K10 – General

JEL: K11 – Property Law

JEL: K12 – Contract Law

JEL: K13 – Tort Law and Product Liability

JEL: K14 – Criminal Law

JEL: K19 – Other

JEL: K2 – Regulation and Business Law

JEL: K20 – General

JEL: K21 – Antitrust Law

JEL: K22 – Business and Securities Law

JEL: K23 – Regulated Industries and Administrative Law

JEL: K29 – Other

Intermediate edit, cont.:

JEL: K3 – Other Substantive Areas of Law

JEL: K30 – General

JEL: K31 – Labor Law

JEL: K32 – Environmental, Health, and Safety Law

JEL: K33 – International Law

JEL: K34 – Tax Law

JEL: K35 – Personal Bankruptcy Law

JEL: K37 – Immigration Law

JEL: K39 – Other

JEL: K4 – Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior

JEL: K40 – General

JEL: K41 – Litigation Process

JEL: K42 – Illegal Behavior and the Enforcement of Law

JEL: K49 – Other


Industrial organization JEL: L Subcategories

Category:Industrial organization

JEL: L – Industrial Organization

JEL: L0 – General

JEL: L00 – General

JEL: L1 – Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance

JEL: L10 – General

JEL: L11 – Production, Pricing, and Market structure; Size Distribution of Firms

JEL: L12 – Monopoly; Monopolization Strategies

JEL: L13 – Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets

JEL: L14 – Transactional Relationships; Contracts and Reputation; Networks

JEL: L15 – Information and Product Quality; Standardization and Compatibility

JEL: L16 – Industrial Organization and Macroeconomics: Industrial Structure and Structural Change; Industrial Price Indices

JEL: L17 – Open Source Products and Markets

JEL: L19 – Other

JEL: L2 – Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior

JEL: L20 – General

JEL: L21 – Business Objectives of the Firm

JEL: L22 – Firm Organization and Market Structure

JEL: L23 – Organization of Production

JEL: L24 – Contracting out; Joint ventures; Technology licensing

JEL: L25 – Firm Performance: Size, Diversification, and Scope

JEL: L26 – Entrepreneurship

JEL: L29 – Other

JEL: L3 – Non-profit organizations and Public enterprise

JEL: L30 – General

JEL: L31 – Nonprofit Institutions; NGOs

JEL: L32 – Public enterprises; Public-Private Enterprises

JEL: L33 – Comparison of Public and Private Enterprises; Privatization; Contracting out

JEL: L39 – Other

JEL: L4 – Antitrust Issues and Policies

JEL: L40 – General

JEL: L41 – Monopolization; Horizontal Anticompetitive Practices

JEL: L42 – Vertical Restraints; Resale Price Maintenance; Quantity Discounts

JEL: L43 – Legal Monopolies and Regulation or Deregulation

JEL: L44 – Antitrust Policy and Public Enterprise, Nonprofit Institutions, and Professional Organizations

JEL: L49 – Other

JEL: L5 – Regulation and Industrial policy

JEL: L50 – General

JEL: L51 – Economics of Regulation

JEL: L52 – Industrial Policy; Sectoral Planning Methods

JEL: L53 – Enterprise Policy

JEL: L59 – Other

JEL: L6 – Industry Studies: Manufacturing

JEL: L60 – General

JEL: L61 – Metals and Metal Products; Cement; Glass; Ceramics

JEL: L62 – Automobiles; Other Transportation Equipment

JEL: L63 – Microelectronics; Computers; Communications Equipment

JEL: L64 – Other Machinery; Business Equipment; Armaments

JEL: L65 – Chemicals; Rubber; Drugs; Biotechnology

JEL: L66 – Food; Beverages; Cosmetics; Tobacco; Wine and Spirits

JEL: L67 – Other Consumer Nondurables: Clothing, Textiles, Shoes, and Leather

JEL: L68 – Appliances; Other Consumer Durables

JEL: L69 – Other

JEL: L7 – Industry Studies: Primary Products and Construction

JEL: L70 – General

JEL: L71 – Mining, Extraction, and Refining: Hydrocarbon Fuels

JEL: L72 – Mining, Extraction, and Refining: Other Nonrenewable Resources

JEL: L73 – Forest Products

JEL: L74 – Construction

JEL: L78 – Government Policy

JEL: L79 – Other

JEL: L8 – Industry Studies: Services

JEL: L80 – General

JEL: L81 – Retail and Wholesale Trade; e-Commerce

JEL: L82 – Entertainment; Media (Performing Arts, Visual Arts, Broadcasting, Publishing, etc.)

JEL: L83 – Sports; Gambling; Recreation; Tourism

JEL: L84 – Personal, Professional, and Business Services

JEL: L85 – Real Estate Services

JEL: L86 – Information and Internet Services; Computer Software

JEL: L87 – Postal and Delivery Services

JEL: L88 – Government Policy

JEL: L89 – Other

JEL: L9 – Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities

JEL: L90 – General

JEL: L91 – Transportation: General

JEL: L92 – Railroads and Other Surface Transportation

JEL: L93 – Air transportation

JEL: L94 – Electric utilities

JEL: L95 – Gas Utilities; Pipelines; Water Utilities

JEL: L96 – Telecommunications

JEL: L97 – Utilities: General

JEL: L98 – Government Policy

JEL: L99 – Other


Business administration and business economics; marketing; accounting JEL: M Subcategories


JEL: M – Business administration and business economics; marketing; accounting

JEL: M0 – General

JEL: M00 – General

JEL: M1 – Business Administration

JEL: M10 – General

JEL: M11 – Production Management

JEL: M12 – Personnel Management

JEL: M13 – New firms and Startup companies

JEL: M14 – Corporate culture; Social Responsibility

JEL: M15 – IT Management

JEL: M16 – International Business Administration

JEL: M19 – Other

JEL: M2 – Business Economics

JEL: M20 – General

JEL: M21 – Business economics

JEL: M29 – Other

JEL: M3 – Marketing and Advertising

JEL: M30 – General

JEL: M31 – Marketing

JEL: M37 – Advertising

JEL: M38 – Government Policy and Regulation

JEL: M39 – Other

JEL: M4 – Accounting and Auditing

JEL: M40 – General

JEL: M41 – Accounting scholarship

JEL: M42 – Auditing

JEL: M48 – Government Policy and Regulation

JEL: M49 – Other

JEL: M5 – Personnel economics

JEL: M50 – General

JEL: M51 – Firm Employment Decisions; Promotions (hiring, firing, turnover, part-time, temporary workers, seniority issues)

JEL: M52 – Compensation and Compensation Methods and Their Effects (stock options, fringe benefits, incentives, family support programs, seniority issues)

JEL: M53 – Training

JEL: M54 – Labor Management (team formation, worker empowerment, job design, tasks and authority, job satisfaction)

JEL: M55 – Labor Contracting Devices: Outsourcing; Franchising; Other

JEL: M59 – Other


Economic history JEL: N Subcategories

Category:Economic history

JEL: N – Economic History

JEL: N0 – General

JEL: N00 – General

JEL: N01 – Development of the Discipline: Historiographical; Sources and Methods

JEL: N1 – Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Growth and Fluctuations

JEL: N10 – General, International, or Comparative

JEL: N11 – U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913

JEL: N12 – U.S.; Canada: 1913–

JEL: N13 – Europe: Pre-1913

JEL: N14 – Europe: 1913–

JEL: N15 – Asia including Middle East

JEL: N16 – Latin America; Caribbean

JEL: N17 – Africa; Oceania

JEL: N2 – Financial Markets and Institutions

JEL: N20 – General, International, or Comparative

JEL: N21 – U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913

JEL: N22 – U.S.; Canada: 1913–

JEL: N23 – Europe: Pre-1913

JEL: N24 – Europe: 1913–

JEL: N25 – Asia including Middle East

JEL: N26 – Latin America; Caribbean

JEL: N27 – Africa; Oceania

JEL: N3 – Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Income, and Wealth

JEL: N30 – General, International, or Comparative

JEL: N31 – U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913

JEL: N32 – U.S.; Canada: 1913–

JEL: N33 – Europe: Pre-1913

JEL: N34 – Europe: 1913–

JEL: N35 – Asia including Middle East

JEL: N36 – Latin America; Caribbean

JEL: N37 – Africa; Oceania

JEL: N4 – Government, War, Law, and Regulation

JEL: N40 – General, International, or Comparative

JEL: N41 – U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913

JEL: N42 – U.S.; Canada: 1913–

JEL: N43 – Europe: Pre-1913

JEL: N44 – Europe: 1913–

JEL: N45 – Asia including Middle East

JEL: N46 – Latin America; Caribbean

JEL: N47 – Africa; Oceania

JEL: N5 – Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment, and Extractive Industries

JEL: N50 – General, International, or Comparative

JEL: N51 – U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913

JEL: N52 – U.S.; Canada: 1913–

JEL: N53 – Europe: Pre-1913

JEL: N54 – Europe: 1913–

JEL: N55 – Asia including Middle East

JEL: N56 – Latin America; Caribbean

JEL: N57 – Africa; Oceania

JEL: N6 – Manufacturing and Construction

JEL: N60 – General, International, or Comparative

JEL: N61 – U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913

JEL: N62 – U.S.; Canada: 1913–

JEL: N63 – Europe: Pre-1913

JEL: N64 – Europe: 1913–

JEL: N65 – Asia including Middle East

JEL: N66 – Latin America; Caribbean

JEL: N67 – Africa; Oceania

JEL: N7 – Transport, International and Domestic Trade, Energy, Technology, and Other Services

JEL: N70 – General, International, or Comparative

JEL: N71 – U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913

JEL: N72 – U.S.; Canada: 1913–

JEL: N73 – Europe: Pre-1913

JEL: N74 – Europe: 1913–

JEL: N75 – Asia including Middle East

JEL: N76 – Latin America; Caribbean

JEL: N77 – Africa; Oceania

JEL: N8 – Micro-Business History

JEL: N80 – General, International, or Comparative

JEL: N81 – U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913

JEL: N82 – U.S.; Canada: 1913–

JEL: N83 – Europe: Pre-1913

JEL: N84 – Europe: 1913–

JEL: N85 – Asia including Middle East

JEL: N86 – Latin America; Caribbean

JEL: N87 – Africa; Oceania

JEL: N9 – Regional and Urban History

JEL: N90 – General, International, or Comparative

JEL: N91 – U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913

JEL: N92 – U.S.; Canada: 1913–

JEL: N93 – Europe: Pre-1913

JEL: N94 – Europe: 1913–

JEL: N95 – Asia including Middle East

JEL: N96 – Latin America; Caribbean

JEL: N97 – Africa; Oceania


Economic development, technological change, and growth JEL: O Subcategories

Category: Economic development, technological change, and growth

JEL: O – Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth

JEL: O1 – Economic development

JEL: O10 – General

JEL: O11 – Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development

JEL: O12 – Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development

JEL: O13 – Agriculture; Natural Resources; Energy; Environment; Other Primary Products

JEL: O14 – Industrialization; Manufacturing and Service Industries; Choice of Technology

JEL: O15 – Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration

JEL: O16 – Financial Markets; Saving and Capital Investment

JEL: O17 – Formal and Informal Sectors; Shadow Economy; Institutional Arrangements: Legal, Social, Economic, and Political

JEL: O18 – Regional, Urban, and Rural Analyses, Transportation

JEL: O19 – International Linkages to Development; Role of International Organizations

JEL: O2 – Development Planning and Policy

JEL: O20 – General

JEL: O21 – Planning Models; Planning Policy

JEL: O22 – Project Analysis

JEL: O23 – Fiscal and Monetary Policy in Development

JEL: O24 – Trade Policy; Factor Movement Policy; Foreign Exchange Policy

JEL: O25 – Industrial policy

JEL: O29 – Other

JEL: O3 – Technological Change; Research and Development

JEL: O30 – General

JEL: O31 – Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives

JEL: O32 – Management of Technological Innovation and R&D

JEL: O33 – Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes

JEL: O34 – Intellectual Property Rights: National and International Issues

JEL: O38 – Government Policy

JEL: O39 – Other

JEL: O4 – Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity

JEL: O40 – General

JEL: O41 – One, Two, and Multisector Growth Models

JEL: O42 – Monetary Growth Models

JEL: O43 – Institutions and Growth

JEL: O44 – Environment and Growth

JEL: O47 – Measurement of Economic Growth; Aggregate Productivity

JEL: O49 – Other

JEL: O5 – Economywide Country Studies

JEL: O50 – General

JEL: O51 – U.S.; Canada

JEL: O52 – Europe

JEL: O53 – Asia including Middle East

JEL: O54 – Latin America; Caribbean

JEL: O55 – Africa

JEL: O56 – Oceania

JEL: O57 – Comparative Studies of Countries


Economic systems JEL: P Subcategories

Category:Economic systems

JEL: P – Economic Systems

JEL: P0 – General

JEL: P00 – General

JEL: P1 – Capitalist Systems

JEL: P10 – General

JEL: P11 – Planning, Coordination, and Reform

JEL: P12 – Capitalist Enterprises

JEL: P13 – Cooperative Enterprises

JEL: P14 – Property Rights

JEL: P16 – Political Economy

JEL: P17 – Performance and Prospects

JEL: P19 – Other

JEL: P2 – Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies

JEL: P20 – General

JEL: P21 – Planning, Coordination, and Reform

JEL: P22 – Prices

JEL: P23 – Factor and Product Markets; Industry Studies; Population

JEL: P24 – National Income, Product, and Expenditure; Money; Inflation

JEL: P25 – Urban, Rural, and Regional Economics; Housing; Transportation

JEL: P26 – Political Economy; Property Rights

JEL: P27 – Performance and Prospects

JEL: P28 – Natural Resources; Energy; Environment

JEL: P29 – Other

JEL: P3 – Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions

JEL: P30 – General

JEL: P31 – Socialist Enterprises and Their Transitions

JEL: P32 – Collectives; Communes; Agriculture

JEL: P33 – International Trade, Finance, Investment, Business, and Aid

JEL: P34 – Financial Economics

JEL: P35 – Public Economics

JEL: P36 – Consumer Economics; Health, Education, Welfare, and Poverty

JEL: P37 – Legal Institutions; Illegal Behavior

JEL: P39 – Other

JEL: P4 – Other Economic Systems

JEL: P40 – General

JEL: P41 – Planning, Coordination, and Reform

JEL: P42 – Productive Enterprises; Factor and Product Markets; Prices; Population

JEL: P43 – Public Economics; Financial Economics

JEL: P44 – National Income, Product, and Expenditure; Money; Inflation

JEL: P45 – International Trade, Finance, Investment, and Aid

JEL: P46 – Consumer Economics; Welfare and Poverty

JEL: P47 – Performance and Prospects

JEL: P48 – Political Economy; Legal Institutions; Property Rights, Natural Resources; Energy; Environment; Regional Studies

JEL: P49 – Other

JEL: P5 – Comparative Economic Systems

JEL: P50 – General

JEL: P51 – Comparative Analysis of Economic Systems

JEL: P52 – Comparative Studies of Particular Economies

JEL: P59 – Other


Agricultural and natural resource economics; environmental and ecological economics JEL: Q Subcategories

Category:Resource economics

JEL: Q – Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics

JEL: Q0 – General

JEL: Q00 – General

JEL: Q01 – Sustainable development

JEL: Q02 – Global Commodity Crises

JEL: Q1 – Agriculture

JEL: Q10 – General

JEL: Q11 – Aggregate Supply and Demand Analysis; Prices

JEL: Q12 – Micro Analysis of Farm Firms, Farm Households, and Farm Input Markets

JEL: Q13 – Agricultural markets and Marketing; Cooperatives; Agribusiness

JEL: Q14 – Agricultural finance

JEL: Q15 – Land Ownership and Tenure; Land reform; Land use; Irrigation; Agriculture and Environment

JEL: Q16 – R&D; Agricultural technology; Biofuels; Agricultural Extension Services

JEL: Q17 – Agriculture in International Trade

JEL: Q18 – Agricultural policy; Food policy

JEL: Q19 – Other

JEL: Q2 – Renewable Resources and Conservation

JEL: Q20 – General

JEL: Q21 – Demand and Supply

JEL: Q22 – Fishery; Aquaculture

JEL: Q23 – Forestry

JEL: Q24 – Land

JEL: Q25 – Water

JEL: Q26 – Recreational Aspects of Natural Resources

JEL: Q28 – Government Policy

JEL: Q29 – Other

JEL: Q3 – Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation

JEL: Q30 – General

JEL: Q31 – Demand and Supply

JEL: Q32 – Exhaustible Resources and Economic Development

JEL: Q34 – Natural Resources and Domestic and International Conflicts

JEL: Q33 – Resource Booms

JEL: Q38 – Government Policy

JEL: Q39 – Other

JEL: Q4 – Energy

JEL: Q40 – General

JEL: Q41 – Demand and Supply

JEL: Q42 – Alternative Energy Sources

JEL: Q43 – Energy and the Macroeconomy

JEL: Q47 – Energy Forecasting

JEL: Q48 – Government Policy

JEL: Q49 – Other

JEL: Q5 – Environmental economics

JEL: Q50 – General

JEL: Q51 – Valuation of Environmental Effects

JEL: Q52 – Pollution Control Adoption Costs; Distributional Effects; Employment Effects

JEL: Q53 – Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling

JEL: Q54 – Climate; Natural Disasters, Global Warming

JEL: Q55 – Technological Innovation

JEL: Q56 – Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environment Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth

JEL: Q57 – Ecological economics: Ecosystem Services; Biodiversity Conservation; Bioeconomics; Industrial Ecology

JEL: Q58 – Government Policy

JEL: Q59 – Other


Urban, rural, and regional economics JEL: R Subcategories

Category:Urban, rural, and regional economics

JEL: R – Urban, Rural, and Regional economics

JEL: R0 – General

JEL: R00 – General

JEL: R1 – General Regional economics

JEL: R10 – General

JEL: R11 – Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, and Changes

JEL: R12 – Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity; Interregional Trade

JEL: R13 – General Equilibrium and Welfare Economic Analysis of Regional Economies

JEL: R14 – Land Use Patterns

JEL: R15 – Econometric and Input–Output Models; Other Models

JEL: R19 – Other

JEL: R2 – Household Analysis

JEL: R20 – General

JEL: R21 – Housing Demand

JEL: R22 – Other Demand

JEL: R23 – Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population

JEL: R29 – Other

JEL: R3 – Production Analysis and Firm Location

JEL: R30 – General

JEL: R31 – Housing Supply and Markets

JEL: R32 – Other Production and Pricing Analysis

JEL: R33 – Nonagricultural and Nonresidential Real Estate Markets

JEL: R34 – Input Demand Analysis

JEL: R38 – Government Policies; Regulatory Policies

JEL: R39 – Other

JEL: R4 – Transportation Systems

JEL: R40 – General

JEL: R41 – Transportation: Demand; Supply; Congestion; Safety and Accidents

JEL: R42 – Government and Private Investment Analysis

JEL: R48 – Government Pricing; Regulatory Policies

JEL: R49 – Other

JEL: R5 – Regional Government Analysis

JEL: R50 – General

JEL: R51 – Finance in Urban and Rural Economies

JEL: R52 – Land Use and Other Regulations

JEL: R53 – Public Facility Location Analysis; Public Investment and Capital Stock

JEL: R58 – Regional Development Policy

JEL: R59 – Other


Miscellaneous categories (economics) JEL: Y Subcategories

JEL: Y1 – Data: Tables and Charts

JEL: Y10 – Data: Tables and Charts

JEL: Y2 – Introductory Material

JEL: Y20 – Introductory Material

JEL: Y3 – Book Reviews (unclassified)

JEL: Y30 – Book Reviews (unclassified)

JEL: Y4 – Dissertations (unclassified)

JEL: Y40 – Dissertations (unclassified)

JEL: Y5 – Further Reading (unclassified)

JEL: Y50 – Further Reading (unclassified)

JEL: Y6 – Excerpts

JEL: Y60 – Excerpts

JEL: Y6 – No Author General Discussions

JEL: Y60 – No Author General Discussions

JEL: Y8 – JEL: Related Disciplines

JEL: Y80 – Related Disciplines

JEL: Y9 – Other

JEL: Y90 – Other

JEL: Y91 – Pictures and Maps


Other special topics (economics) JEL: Z Subcategories

Category:Other special topics (economics)

JEL: Z – Other special topics

JEL: Z0 – General

JEL: Z00 – General

JEL: Z1 – Cultural Economics; Economic Sociology; Economic Anthropology

JEL: Z10 – General

JEL: Z11 – Economics of the Arts and Literature

JEL: Z12 – Religion

JEL: Z13 – Economic Sociology; Economic Anthropology; Social and Economic Stratification

JEL: Z18 – Public Policy

JEL: Z19 – Other